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Andersen, D. C. 1978. Observations on reproduction, growth, and behavior of the northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides). J. Mammal. 59:418-422.

Andersen, D. C. 1982. Belowground herbivory: The adaptive geometry of geomyid burrows. American Naturalist 119:18-28.

Andersen, D. C. and J. A. MacMahon. 1981. Population dynamics and bioenergetics of a fossorial herbivore, Thomomys talpoides (Rodentia: Geomyidae), in a spruce-fir sere. Ecological Monographs 51:179-202.

Andersen, D. C., J. A. MacMahon, and M. L. Wolfe. 1980. Herbivorous mammals along a montane sere: Community structure and energetics. Journal of Mammalogy 61:500-519.

Anhold, J.A., M.J. Jenkins and J.N. Long. 1996. Management of lodgepole pine stand density to reduce susceptibility to mountain pine beetle attack. West. J. Appl. For. 11:50-53.

Ballard, L.A. and J.N. Long. 1988. Influence of stand density on log quality of lodgepole pine. Can. J. For. Res. 18:911-916.

Bennett, L.W. and R.T. Vetter. 1980. Diversity trends among the invertebrate litter decomposers of a subalpine spruce-fir sere: a test of Odum's hypothesis. In Soil biology as related to land use practices (D.L. Dindal, ed.). Proc. of the VII Coll. of Soil Zoo., Office of Pest and Toxic Substances, EPA, Washington, D.C. p. 785-794.

Bleak, A.T. 1970. Disappearance of plant materials under a winter snow. Ecology 51:915-917.

Borjesson, I. and J. Skujins. 1987. Corrections for effusion from gas-permeable enclosures for the determination of low N2(C2H2) fixation rates in situ. Soil Biol. Biochem. 19:000- 000 (in press).

Cameron, D.E. and M.J. Jenkins. 1989. Engelmann spruce cone losses caused by insects in Northern Utah in a year of low cone production. Great Basin Natur. 48:508-511.

Daniel, T.W. and G.H. Barnes. 1958. Thinning a yound stand of lodgepole pine. In Proc. Soc. of Amer. For., Salt Lake City, Utah. pg. 159-163.

Daniel, T.W. and G. Glatzel. 1966. Duff: A lethal seedbed for overwintering Engelmann spruce seeds. In Proc. Sixth World Forestry Congr. Madrid. 2, 1420-1424.

Daniel, T.W. and J. Schmidt. 1972. Lethal and nonlethal effects of the organic horizons of forested soils on the germination of seeds from several associated conifer species of the Rocky Mountains. Can. J. For. Res. 2:179-184.

Dean, T.J. and J.N. Long. 1986. Variation in sapwood area -- leaf area relations within two stands of lodgepole pine. For. Sci. 32:749-758.

Dean, T.J. and J.N. Long. 1986. The validity of constant stress and elastic instability principles of stem formation in Pinus contorta and Trifolium pratense. Annals of Botany 58:833-840.

Dean, T.J. and J.N. Long. 1992. Influence of leaf area and canopy structure on size-density relations in even-aged lodgepole pine stands. For. Ecol. and Manage. 49:109-117.

Dean, T.J., J.N. Long and F.W. Smith. 1988. Bias in leaf area- sapwood area ratios and its impact on growth analysis in lodgepole pine. Trees 2:104-109.

Dolbeer, R.A. and W.R. Clark. 1975. Population ecology of snowshoe hares in the central Rocky Mountains. J. Wildl. Manage. 39:535-549.

Fowler, C. W. and J. A. MacMahon. 1982. Selective extinction and speciation: Their influence on the structure and functioning of communities and ecosystems. American Naturalist 119:480-498.

Frank, C.J. and M.J. Jenkins. 1987. Impact of the western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on buds, developing cones, and seeds of Douglas-fir in West Central Idaho. Environmental Entomology 16:304-308.

Gifford, G.F., W. Humphries and R.A. Jaynes. 1983. A preliminary quantification of the impacts of aspen to conifer succession on water yield within the Colorado River Basin (a process aggravating the salt pollution problem). Utah Water Res. Lab Hydraulics and Hydrol. Series UWRL/H-83/01. Utah St. Univ., Logan. 67 p.

Gifford, G.F., W. Humphries and R.A. Jaynes. 1984. A preliminary quantification of the impacts of aspen to conifer succession on water yield. II. Modeling results. Water Resour. Bull. 20:181-186.

Hager, H. and T.W. Daniel. 1972. Beziehungen Zwischen Klimafaktoren, Zapfenproduktion und Dickenwachstum. In 100-Jahre Hochschule fur Bodenkultur in Wien aus Band IV Studienrichtung Forst - und Holzwirtschaft. p. 267-280.

Hart, G.E. and D.A. Lomas. 1979. Effects of clearcutting on soil water depletion in an Engelmann spruce stand. Water Resour. Res. 15:1598-1602.

Hart, G.E. and D.A. Lomas. 1979. Clearcutting increases soil moisture in Engelmann spruce forests. Utah Science 40:112- 115.

Hart, G.E. and D.A. Lomas. 1980. Soil moisture and snowpack after clearcutting. Proc. of Watershed Management Symposium, Amer. Soc. Civil Eng., Boise, Idaho.

Hart, G.E. and S.A. Loomis. 1982. Erosion from melt of a mountain snowpack. J. Soil and Water Conv. 37:55-57.

Hines, F.D. and J.N. Long. 1986. First and second year survival of containerized Engelmann spruce in relation to initial seedling size. Can. J. For. Res. 16:668-670.

Humphries, W. and G.F. Gifford. 1984. A preliminary quantification of the impacts of aspen to conifer succession on water yield. I. Heat pulse methodology for model calibration. Water Resour. Bull. 20:173-179.

Jack, S.B. and J.N. Long. 1991. Analysis of stand density effects on canopy structure: a conceptual approach. TREES 5:44-49.

Jack, S.B. and J.N. Long. 1991. Structure, production and leaf area dynamics: a comparison of lodgepole pine and sunflower. Ann. Bot. 68:247-252.

Jack, S.B. and J.N. Long. 1991. Response of leaf area index to density for two contrasting tree species. Can. J. For. Res. 21:1760-1764.

Jack, S.B. and J.N. Long. 1992. Forest production and the organization of foliage within crowns and canopies. Forest Ecology and Management 49:233-245.

Jack, S.B. and J.N. Long. 1996. Linkages between silviculture and ecology: an analysis of density management diagrams. Forest Ecology & Management 86:205-220.

Knight, W.G. and J. Skujins. 1981. ATP concentration and soil respiration at reduced water potentials in arid soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45:657-660.

Kropp, B.R. and S. Albee. 1996. The effects of silvicultural treatments on occurrence of mycorrhizal sporocarps in a Pinus contorta forest: a preliminary study. Biological Conservation 78:313-318.

Long, J.N. 1996. T.W. Daniel Experimental Forest. IN: Schmidt, W.C. and J.L. Friede (compilers). Experimental forests, ranges, and watersheds in the Northern Rocky Mountains: A compendium of Outdoor Laboratories in Utah, Idaho, and Montana. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-334. p.31-36.

Long, J.N. 1996. A technique for the control of stocking in two-storied stands. West. J. Appl. For. 11:59-61.

                    Long, J.N. 1988. Silviculture: shaping future forests. Utah Science 49:109-114.

Long, J.N. and T.W. Daniel. 1990. Assessment of growing stock in uneven-aged stands. West. J. Appl. For. 5:93-96.

Long, J.N. and T.J. Dean. 1986. Sapwood area of Pinus contorta stands as a function of mean size and density. Oecologia 68:410-412.

Long, J.N. and F.W. Smith. 1988. Leaf area-sapwood area relations of lodgepole pine as influenced by stand density and site index. Can. J. For. Res. 18:247-250.

Long, J.N. and F.W. Smith. 1989. Estimating leaf area of Abies lasiocarpa across ranges of stand density and site quality. Can. J. For. Res. 19:930-932.

Long, J.N. and F.W. Smith. 1990. Canopy development and leaf area efficiency: links between production ecology and density management. In Proc. Conf. on New Approaches to Spacing and Thinning in Plantation Forestry. IUFRO and NZ For. Res. Inst., Rotorua, NZ. April, 1989.

Long, J.N. and F.W. Smith. 1990. Determinants of stemwood production in Pinus contorta var. latifolia forests: the influence of site quality and stand structure. J. Appl. Ecol. 27:847-856.

MacMahon, J. A. 1980. Ecosystems over time: Succession and other types of change. In: R. W. Waring (ed.) Forests: Fresh perspectives from ecosystem analysis. Proceedings of the 40th Annual Biology Colloquium (1979), Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, pp. 27-58.

MacMahon, J. A. 1981. Succession of ecosystems: A preliminary comparative analysis. In: M. A. Hemstrom and J. F. Franklin (tech. eds.) Successional research and environmental pollutant monitoring associated with biosphere reserves. Proc. 2nd US/USSR Symposium on Biosphere Reserves, March 10-15, 1980, Everglades National Park, Florida, USDI/ National Park Service, pp. 5-26.

MacMahon, J. A. 1981. Successional processes: Comparisons among biomes with special references to probable roles of and influences on animals. In: D. C. West, H. H. Shugart, and D. B. Botkin (eds.) Forest succession: Concept and application. Springer-Verlag, New York, Chapter 18, pp. 277-304.

MacMahon, J. A. and D. C. Andersen. 1982. Subalpine forests: A world perspective with emphasis on western North America. Progress in Physical Geography 6:368-425 (Edward Arnold, London).

MacMahon, J. A., D. J. Schimpf, D. C. Andersen, K. G. Smith, and R. L. Bayn, Jr. 1981. An organism-centered approach to some community and ecosystem concepts. J. Theor. Biol. 88:287- 307.

McCarter, J.B. and J.N. Long. 1986. A lodgepole pine density management diagram. West. J. Appl. For. 1:6-11.

Parker, J.N. and J.N. Long. 1989. Intra- and inter-specific tests of some indicators of relative tolerance. For. Ecol. and Management. 28:177-189.

Reese, G. A. 1980. Dominance and diversity of herbaceous vegetation in a northern Utah subalpine chronosequence. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 61:132.

Reese, G. A., R. L. Bayn, Jr., and N. E. West. 1980. Evaluation of double sampling estimators of subalpine herbage production. Journal of Range Management 33:300-306.

Roberts, S.D. 1994. The occurrence of non-ring producing branches in Abies lasiocarpa. Trees 8:263-267.

Roberts, S.D. and J.N. Long. 1991. Effects of storage, planting date, and shelter on Engelmann spruce containerized seedlings in the Central Rockies. West. J. Appl. For. 6:36-38.

Roberts, S.D., and J.N. Long. 1992. Production efficiency of Abies lasiocarpa: influence of vertical distribution of leaf area. Can. J. For. Res. 22:1230-1234.

Roberts, S.D., J.N. Long, and F.W. Smith. 1993. Canopy stratification and leaf area efficiency: a conceptualization. Forest Ecology and Management 60:143-156.

Schimpf, D. J. and R. L. Bayn, Jr. 1983. Reproductive attributes of some Rocky Mountain subalpine herbs in successional context. Great Basin Naturalist 43:573-578.

Schimpf, D. J., J. A. Henderson, and J. A. MacMahon. 1980. Some aspects of succession in the spruce-fir forest zone of northern Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 40:1-26.

Schimpf, D. J. and J. A. MacMahon. 1985. Insect communities and faunas of a Rocky Mountain subalpine sere. Great Basin Naturalist 45:37-60.

Skujins, J. and B. Klubek. 1982. Soil biological properties of a montane forest sere: corroboration of Odum's postulates. Soil Biol. Biochem. 14:505-513.

Skujins, J., C.C. Tann and I. Borjesson. 1987. Dinitrogen fixation in a montane forest sere determined by 15N2 assimilation and in situ acetylene-reduction methods. Soil Biol. Biochem. 19:000-000.

Smith, F.W. and J.N. Long. 1987. Elk hiding and thermal cover guidelines in the context of lodgepole pine stand density. West. J. Appl. For. 2:6-10.

Smith, F.W. and J.N. Long. 1989. The influence of canopy structure on stemwood production and growth efficiency of Pinus contorta var. latifolia. J. Appl. Ecol. 26:681-691.

Smith, F.W. and J.N. Long. 1991. Determinants of stemwood production in coniferous forests: a comparison of Pinus contorta var. latifolia and Abies lasiocarpa. In Proc. Symp. on Ecology of mixed species stands of trees. IUFRO and British Ecological Society, Edinburgh, Scotland. Sept. 1990.

Smith, K. G. 1978. Range extension of the blue jay into western North America. Bird-Banding 49:208-214.

Smith, K. G. 1978. White-winged Crossbills breed in northern Utah. Western Birds 9:79-81.

Smith, K. G. 1979. Common Redpolls using spruce seeds in northern Utah. Wilson Bull. 91:621-623.

Smith, K. G. 1979. Analysis of Blue Jay migration west of the 100th meridian. North Amer. Bird Bander 4:49-52.

Smith, K. G. 1980. Nongame birds of the Rocky Mountain spruce- fir forests and their management, pp. 258-279. In: R. DeGraaf (Tech. Coord.) Management of western forest and grassland for nongame birds. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report INT-89.

Smith, K. G. 1982. Drought-induced changes in avian community structure along a montane sere. Ecology 63:952-961.

Smith, K. G. and D. C. Andersen. 1982. Food predation and reproductive ecology of the dark-eyed junco in northern Utah. Auk 99:650-661.

Smith, K. G. and J. A. MacMahon. 1981. Bird communities along a montane sere: Community structure and energetics. Auk 98:8-28.

Wadleigh, L. and M.J. Jenkins. 1996. Fire frequency and the vegetation mosaic of a spruce-fir forest in northern Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 56:28-37.

West, N.E. and G.A. Reese. 1984. Average seasonal phytomass: a temporally independent index of herbaceous plant dominance. Vegetatio 57:137-142.

West, N.E. and G.A. Reese. 1991. Comparison of some methods for collecting and analyzing data on aboveground net production and diversity of herbaceous vegetation in a northern Utah subalpine context. Vegetatio 96:145-163.

Wicklow-Howard, M.W. and J. Skujins. 1980. Infection of Engelmann spruce seeds by Geniculodendron pyriforme in Western North America. Mycologia 72:406-410.

Wolfe, M. L., N. V. Debyle, C. S. Winchell, and T. R. McCabe. 1982. Snowshoe hare cover relationships in northern Utah. Journal of Wildlife Management 46:662-670.



(from USU unless otherwise noted)

Andersen, Douglas C. 1980. Population dynamics and bioenergetics of a fossorial rodent, the northern pocket gopher (Themomys talpoides), in a spruce-fir ecosystem. PhD. 134p.

Baldazo, Nolasco G. 1974. A study of the radiation quality under plant canopies in the wave range 0.4 to 2.5 microns. PhD. 79p.

Ballard, Louis A. 1987. Effect of initial stand density on end- of-rotation first log quality characteristics of lodgepole pine. MS. 26p.

Bayn Jr., Robert L. 1982. Plant spacing: a size sensitive model with implications for competition. PhD. 75p.

Beedlow, P.A. 1979. Pollination dynamics in two subalpine flower meadows. PhD. 188p.

Borjesson, I. 1983. Rhizosphere N2 fixation in a forest ecosystem: in situ assays and evaluation of the acetylene reduction technique. PhD.

Cameron, Dawn E. 1987. The association of seed and cone predator populations and cone crop production in Engelmann spruce. MS. 72p.

Christophersen, Allen L. 1973. Effects of temperature, light and water stress on the germination of several Rocky Mountain conifers. MS. 33p.

Chaudry, Abdul M. 1968. Determination of current growth in an evenage stand of lodgepole pine, by the lateral surface method and its comparison with the stand projection method. MS. 48p.

Clark, W.R. 1973. Reproduction, survival and density of snowshoe hares in northeastern Utah. MS. 80p.

Dean, Thomas J. 1986. Stem mechanics as a theoretical basis for the self-thinning rule. Diss. 89p.

Durtschi, Belden B. 1968. Solar radiation under thinned and unthinned lodgepole pine stands on the Utah State University School Forest. MS. 57p.

Eaton, Frank D. 1971. Soil moisture depletion, actual and potential evapotransipration in an Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir forest. MS. 86p.

Eager, Thomas J. 1986. Investigation of host selection by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Hopk. in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) Dougl. MS.

Gadt, Larry O. 1970. A study of root biomass in an Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir stand in Northern Utah. MS. 50p.

Glatzel, Garhard. 1964. Stratification, germination and early development of engelmann spruce on various substrates. MS. 60p.

Hager, Herbert. 1971. Influence of size of cone crop on diameter growth of Engelmann spruce (Picea Engelmannii Parry). MS. 78p.

Hines, Franklin D. 1983. The effects of initial size on subsequent performance in container grown Engelmann spruce seedlings. MS. 32p.

Hook, Donal D. 1962. The influence of various temperatures and stratification treatments on the dry weight responses of several western conifers under controlled environmental conditions. MS. 64p.

Humphries, W.E. 1982. Correlation of heat pulse velocity measurements and transpiration for aspen, Engelmann spurce and subalpine fir in northern Utah. MS. 110p.

Jack, Steven. 1990. Forest canopies: form and functional relationships. Ph.D. 87p.

Krishnamra, Judha. 1960. Effects of temperature and stratification on the germination of several Rocky Mountain coniferous seeds. MS. 60p.

Lawton, Penelope Morgan. 1979. An investigation of the environmental relationships of selected forest habitat types in Northern Utah. MS. 102p.

Loomas, Steven A. 1984. Patterns of soil loss and snowmelt from an Intermountain rangeland site. MS. 95p.

List, Peter. 1959. Growth prediction in spruce-fir forest type on U.S.U. College Forest. MS. 53p.

Lomas, David A. 1977. Soil water depletion following clearcutting small plots in a spruce-fir forest in Northern Utah. MS. 91p.

Mead, Kathleen E. 1982. Nitrogen accretion in a Rocky Mountain subalpine succession. MS. 133p.

Meyn, Richard L. 1973. Internal wate potential of an Engelmann spruce stand in relation to soil and atmospheric factors. PhD. 152p.

Moore, Raymond R. 1964. A study of stand structure in the uneven- aged stands in the Engelmann spruce-subalpine type on the Utah State University Forest. PhD., Univ. Wash., Seattle, Washington. 159p.

Owen, Thomas J. 1962. The effect of temperature on the root growth of coniferous seedlings. MS. 131p.

Page, Douglas H. 1981. The use of Reineke's stand-density index for uneven-aged timber management. MF. 47p.

Parent, Dennis R. 1972. The influence of atmospheric dust and foliar leachates on the chemical quality of throughfall in northern Utah. MS. 52p.

Parker, Joy N. 1986. Relative tolerance: a test of some indirect criteria. MS. 33p.

Pflugbeil, E. 1960. Proposed site indices for Engelmann spruce on the College Forest of USU. MS. 68p.

Reese, Gary A. 1979. Diversity and production of herbaceous vegetation in a northern Utah subalpine chronosequence. MS.

Roberts, S.D. 1991. Production efficiency in subalpine conifers: the influence of crown size and canopy structure. Ph.D. 76p.

Schmidt, Josef. 1969. Germination of four associated conifers stratified in various humus and mineral substrates. MS. 77p.

Smith, Kimberly G. 1981. Avian resource partitioning along a montane sere. PhD. 124p.

Tann, C.-C. 1986. Nitrogen fixation and allelopathy in arid and forest soils in the Western United States. PhD.

Waagen, Gerald N. 1979. Changes in spider community attributes along a subalpine successional gradient. PhD. 135p.

Wadleigh-Anhold, Linda L. 1988. Fire frequency and the vegetal mosaic of the Utah State University Experimental Forest. MS. 54p.

Williams, Steven E. 1977. Tree leaf biomass, and rates of litterfall, decomposition and litter accumulation through three stages of a successional sere in northern Utah. MS. XXp.

Wywialowski, Alice P. 1985. Preferences of red-backed voles and deer mice for differing structural habitats. PhD. 84p.

Zimmermann, George. 1979. The wood and bark biomass and production of Populus tremuloides, Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii in Northern Utah. MS. 95p.

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Revised: June 11, 1998.